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Textile Terminology
 

 

Acid Dyes

An anionic dye applied from an acidic or neutral dye bath. It has affinity for fibres containing basic groups

Acrylic Fibre

A man made fibre containing nitrile. Maturing or ripening of alkali cellulose. Steaming of printed fabrics.

Aging

Maturing or ripening of alkali cellulose. Steaming of printed fabrics.

Angora Fabric

Fabric woven of angora yarn.

Angora Yarn

A soft yarn in which the constituent fibres are hair of angora rabbit or goat.

Armure

Embossing effect used to give a pattern e.g. in drapery or upholestry.

Armure Fabric

A fabric that is woven in armure weave.

Armure Weave

The weave designed to produce armure effect. Ithas definite patterns/figure on the surface.

Azoic Dyes

These are `cold dyes' containing the -azo- group. These are mostly used in batic work.

Bagheera

Term used for uncut dyed velvet cloth to be used for gowns.

Basic Dyes

Dyes containing basic amino group and applied to natural cellulosic fibres in an alkaline dye bath.

Basket Weave

Also called hopsack or matt weave. The weave is 2/2.

Bath

The basic solution in which a chemical process is carried out.

Batik

This is a traditional Indian method of producing discreet patterns/ designs on to the fabric with the help of wax/ or gum resist and cold dyes.

Blanket

A heavy fabric having raised finish.

Blazer Cloth

This cloth has wool in both warp and weft used for apparels in either single or stripes colouring. It may be given a milling or raising finish.

Bleaching

Chemical process of improving the whiteness of the fabrics, yarn or fibre with/ without removal of natural colours,e.g. hydrogen peroxide.

Bleading

It is the phenomenon loss of colour from a dyed fabric or materialon coming in contact with a solvent. It leads to the decolouration of the dyed material.

Blending

Mixing of different fibres in definite proportion to get an end product having the cumulative advantages of its constituents e.g. cotton polyester blends.

Blinding

Removal of lustre of textiles.

Blind Stitch

A sewing stitch not visible on the face of a fabric or garment.

Bobbin Finings (Lace)

A lace construction in which threads from the brass-bobbin provide the filling in of the objects.

Boucle Yarn

A yarn having tight loops formed across its leanth.

Brighteners

These are chemical constituents added into detergents & washing powdeers to increase the whiteness of the material.

Brocade

A fabric having intricate figuring effect by using satin or sateen wweaves on a plain weave background extensively used for silk sarees.

Broad Cloth

A rib effect woven cloth having high cover factor.

Brushing

Finishing process involving passing of the material over one or more brushes. It gives a raised effect.

Calendering

A finishing process to increase the smoothness & lustre of fabric. The material is passed between heated rollers under high pressure.

Calico

A term used for plain weave cotton fabric having medium cover factor.

Cambric

Light weight, closely woven cottons/ linen fabric which is usually given a slightly stiffening effect.

Canvas

A heavy weight, plain weave fabric of cotton, flax, hemp or jute. It has good strength & firmness.

Cashment Cloth

Light to medium weight faced fabric of natural or man made fibre yarns.

Cashmere

Fine wool procured from Asiatic goat.

Cavalry Twill

A warp-faced fabric having double twill lines saperated by grooves. It is a heavy weight fabric.

Chambray

A light net, plain weave of cotton. Its blends or of synthetic yarns. It may have stripes check or figurings. It is used for children's garments , pyjamas, shirts & sportswear.

Check

A pattern of squares.

Chinchilla

A thick , double fabric having a napped surface. It is used for overcoats.

Colour Fastness

The property by virtue of which the dyed material has resistance against bleeding on washed or exposed to light , gas , rubbing.

Combed Yarn

The yarn whose slivers have been carded and combed.

Combing

Making fibres parallel and removing shorter fibres.

Composite Yarn

Yarn made of both staple and filament fibres.

Cord

A general term used for a) plied b) cabled yarns and structures made bybraiding , knitting or weaving.

Corduroy

A cut pile having cords or ribs in the warp direction e.g. cut velveteen fabrics.

Cotton

Natural vegetable fibre obtained from seed hair of plants of the gossypium family.

Cotton

Ratio of the yarn/fibre's weight to length or depending on the direct or indirect system usage. It is a measure of fineness of the fibre.

Count Of Cloth

It is the number of picks per inch and ends per inch in the cloth.

Crepe De Chine

A light weight fabric made of alternate S and Z twist. It has a high crinkled effect.

Crepe Fabric

Fabric of highly twisted yarns with crimped effect produced by alternate S and Z twist.

Crochet

Continuous series of loops with single needle.

Curing

It is the procedure of setting of resin or plastic.

Denim

3/1 warp faced, 2c/1d twill weave , heavy cotton cloth . The fabric is made of yarn-dyed warp and undyed weft yarn.

Direct Dyes

Dyes made of vegetable fibres. These are used for dying callulosic & protien fibres . It is easily applied dyed but has low fastness.

Disperse Dyes

Dyes used only for synthetics eg. polyster.

Discharge (Printing )

A method of printing in which by application of a chemical substance onto specificareas of a dyed fabric , the dye is discharged (removed ) leaving a white or diffeerently coloured pattern.

Dobby

It is a loom used for making double fabrics. It has healed capacity greater than tappet loom.It also shows greater efficiency . Different colour and weave effects can be woven using drop box motion at the shuttle box.

Dobby Fabric

Fabric having weave or effect requiring a dobby looms eg. shepherds checks.

Drill

A twill weave , piece dyed fabric. It is usually made in 0.7m width.

Dry-Clean

Process of removing grease oil , dust from a textile material using an organic solvent and a white powder . It does not involve usage of water.

Duffle-Duffle

A heavy wollen fabric napped from the face and back. It is used for making duffle coats.

Dupion Fabric

Term for fabric woven from imitation silk ' man made fibre.

Dye

A chemical containing chromophore , which on application to another suitable material imparts colour to it accordingly.

Dyeing

Application and fixing of a dye to the substrate.

Elastic Fabric

A fabric composed of fibres /yarns having very high young's modulus . Thus the fabric is characterised by very high extensibility on application of stress without any peermanent deformation eg. lycra.

Embossing

Method of developing a raised /depressed pattern on to the material by passing it between heated rolleer having the similar design engraved upon one of them . It is generally used upon thermo plastic fabrics.

Embroidery

Needle work by hand or machine producing decorative patterns on to the cloth.

Embroidery Lace

Embroidery work imposed on to a pre existing lace material.

Fabric

General term used for all materials made of fibres /yarns by weaving, knitting, lace binding, braiding , felting, bonding, fusing or inter locking.

Fastness

Fastness of material to an agent means the resistance of the former towards the latter.

Filament

A long continuous man-made fibre.

Finishing

Treatment of fabric to improve properties.

Gaberdine

Worsted fabric with pronounced twill face.

Georgette

Crepe fine fabric with alternate twisted tarn.

Hoisery

Knitted articles.

Imitation Velvet

Plain weave with small tufts or fibres fixed by adhesive. .

Interlining

Woven or nonwoven fabric layer between outer cloth and lining of a garment for stiffening or giving warmth.

Jacquard

A weaving machine to produce intricate woven design by controlling each warp yarn.

Jersy

Plain knitted fabric on circular knitting machine or tricot machines.

Jute

A multicellular bast fibre

Knitting

A process of forming open work fabric by tying yarns when they cross one another , interlocking a series of loops.

Knot

Joining together by tying.

Lace

Open work fabric.

Lawn

Light thin cotton fabric .

Loom

A weaving machine.

Lustre

Gloss of textiles .

Madras Fabric

Thin cellulosic fabric woven with figures on lino foundation.

Melange

A mixture of coloured stocks.

Mohair

Fine lustrous hair of Angora goat.

Muslin

A fine plain white cotton fabric.

Narrow Fabrics

Fabrics of 24-36 inch width.

Net

Gestitchesometrically shaped mesh.

Non Woven

Fabric from a web of fibres held together by various methods other than felting, coloring, or intertwining.

Numdah Stitches

A felt Indian rug of goat's hair embroidered with colored chain stitches.

Nylon

Synthetic polyamide fibre.

Organdy

Thin transparent stiff effect on cotton .

Oxford

2 x 1 basket weave .

Package Dyeing

Dying of yarn in packages .

Pick

Weft.

Pick and Pick Weaving

Weaving by alternate picks.

Polyamide

Polymerized product of alcohols and acids.

Poplin

A plain weave fabric with ribbed or corded effect.

Powerloom

Looms driven by power .

Raw Silk

Reeled silk directly from cocoon with slight twist.

Reed

Frame in front of harnesses separating warp and swinging forward.

Satin

A woven cloth of smooth surface caused by weft floats.

Spinning

Process of making yarns .

Spun Silk

Silk yarn from short filament.

Staple

Average length of fibre for natural or , cut in case of man-made fibre .

Suede Cloth

A finish to resemble chamois leather .

Tafetta

Plain closely woven filament fabric.

Tapestry

Yarn dyed figured fabrics in jacquard loom.

Terry Cloth

Absorbent fabric with uncut pile loops.

Terylen British

Briltish polyester fibre .

Texture

Surface effect and appearence of fabric.

Tweed British

A rough fabric of wiry heavy wools.

Twill Weave

Weft interlaced with warp to form diagonal ridges in fabric.

Velour

A cut pile fabric heavier than velvet , ionger piles with fine raised finish of cotton /woollen.

Velvet

Cut pile fabric of silk or man-made fibre .

Warp

Yarn running lengthwise in woven fabric parallel to selvedges.

Weaving

Interlacing of two sets of yarns usually at right angles to form a fabric .

Winch Dyeing Machine

A dyeing machine consisting of a dye vessel fitted with a drive winch which rotates and draws a length of fabric, normally joined end to end, through the liquor.

Woolen

Descriptive of yarns, or fabrics or garments made from yarns, which have been produced on the condenser system, wholly from wool fibres, new or otherwise. ( Wool is the fibrous covering of a sheep.)

Worsted

Descriptive of yarn spun wholly from combed wool in which the fibres are reasonably parallel ,and fabrics or garments made from such yarns. In most countries fabrics with a small proportion of non-wool decorative threads can be described as worsted.

Worsted Fabric

A fabric manufactured wholly from worsted yarns , except that decoration threads of other fibres may be present .

Yarn

A product of substantial length and relatively small cross- section consisting of fibres and /or filament (s).


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